The acronym APA stands for American Psychological Association. Mostly used in the social sciences at first, it is now one of the most widespread citation styles in academia. Scholars in education, business, economics, political studies, social work, communication, psychology, anthropology, and more, use APA.
APA Style was first established in 1929. Since that first publication, there have been seven editions that have grown in scope and length, to address students, educators, and researcher's needs. We are now working with APA 7th edition, which was published in October 2019.
|New Changes to the 7th edition||Example|
|The publisher location is no longer included in the reference||
X Peters, M. A., & Britez, R. G. (2008). Open education and education for openness. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
✓ Peters, M. A., & Britez, R. G. (2008). Open education and education for openness. Sense Publishers.
|The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the first citation. You only include the first author's name and "et al.".||
X (Taylor, Kotler, Johnson, & Parker, 2018)
✓ (Taylor et al., 2018)
|Surnames and names for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) should be provided in the reference list||
X Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., … Lee, L. H. (2018).
✓ Miller, T. C., Brown, M. J., Wilson, G. L., Evans, B. B., Kelly, R. S., Turner, S. T., Lewis, F., Lee, L. H., Cox, G., Harris, H. L., Martin, P., Gonzalez, W. L., Hughes, W., Carter, D., Campbell, C., Baker, A. B., Flores, T., Gray, W. E., Green, G., … Nelson, T. P. (2018).
|DOIs are formatted the same as URLs. The label "DOI:" is no longer necessary.||
X DOI: 10.21083/partnership.v15i1.5450
|URLs are no longer preceded by "Retrieved from," unless a retrieval date is needed. The website name is included (unless it's the same as the author), and web page titles are italicized.||
X Gold, K. (2020, August 28). Small-town B.C. sees a rental boom as people migrate from urban centres. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/real-estate/vancouver/article-small-town-bc-sees-a-rental-boom-as-people-migrate-from-urban/
✓ Gold, K. (2020, August 28). Small-town B.C. sees a rental boom as people migrate from urban centres. The Globe and Mail.
|For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is no longer included in the reference, and the publisher is included.||
X Zhang, K., Bonk, C. J., Reeves, T. C., Reynolds, T. H., Bonk, C. J., Reeves, T. C., & Reynolds, T. H. (2019). MOOCs and open education in the global south : Challenges, successes, and opportunities. [eBook]. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429398919
✓ Zhang, K., Bonk, C. J., Reeves, T. C., Reynolds, T. H., Bonk, C. J., Reeves, T. C., & Reynolds, T. H. (2019). MOOCs and open education in the global south : Challenges, successes, and opportunities. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429398919
Here's a list of basic forms for different types of resources. Before referencing, make sure that you have a good understanding of the source type or format. If the format you are referencing is not listed below, you can consult APA 7th edition or Purdue OWL for more details and examples.
Articles in Periodicals:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name.
Article or Chapters in an Edited Book:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher.
Website or Piece of Online Content:
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL
Article from an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned:
Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.(Issue), page numbers. DOI
Online News Article:
Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL
Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group (Year). Title of dataset (Version No.) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL
If you have questions, or if you run into problems that the guide does not address, e-mail Catherine Lachaîne at firstname.lastname@example.org
This online guide is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license. This page is attributed to Catherine Lachaîne.