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Philosophy: Referencing

Referencing and bibliographies

When writing a research paper, it is important to document every quotation, paraphrase and idea; this means citing your sources. Sources are of two types:

1) Notes in the text of the research (also known as footnotes, in text citations or end notes)

2) A bibliography, or list of works that were consulted during the research.

Everything needed to identify and find a text, whether an article, an exhibition catalogue or a regular book, is found in each citation. Whatever the bibliographic style, include author(s), title and subtitle, source (journal or book), page numbers, date; for monographs (books) the place and name of the publisher are also used.  Catalogue and database recrods can contain the information you need.

For details regarding when to cite, see the Academic Writing Centre's guide to avoiding plagiarism.

Common referencing styles

What style to use?

Each discipline uses its own method of documentation or citation style; ask your professor for a recommendation. There is no single correct form, but it is essential that consistency be observed in all entries.

Online tools to help