Cross your Ts: 3 easy steps to becoming a Citation Guru

How do I cite business sources in APA?

When completing assignments, you'll likely be citing materials other than books, articles and websites. Resources such as case studies, industry reports and company profiles need to be cited in their own specific manner. Below are resources with reference list examples for these types of sources.

Citing Case Studies

Case studies can be published in various formats: in print within a textbook or an article, in e-format from a publisher, on a professor's website, etc. There is no one way to cite them in APA. You should therefore cite a case study based on its format within a source type (see examples at right).

Citing Business Material (APA)

ABI Inform/Global - article from trade publication
MacFadyen, K. (2011). A Roadmap for dissent. Mergers and Acquisitions, 46(5), 18-19.
Retrieved from
Bloomberg - Stock Price
Bloomberg L.P. (2012). Stock price for Apple, Inc. 6/14/2012. Retrieved from Bloomberg
Bloomberg - Company Financials
Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Hewlitt Packard: Return on capital, 12/31/90 to 9/30/08. Retrieved
from Bloomberg Professional.
Business Source Complete - SWOT analysis
Datamonitor. (2010, April). Zurich Financial Services SWOT Analysis. Retrieved from
Conference Board e-Library - metropolitan outlook
Arcand, A., Lefebvre, M., McIntyre, J., Sutherland, G., & Wiebe, R. (2011, February).
Montréal: Metropolitan Outlook 1, Winter 2011. Retrieved from
Marketline Advantage - industry profile
Marketline Advantage. (2010,September). Wireless telecommunication services in
Asia-Pacific. Retrieved from
Statistics Canada - household spending
Table (citations are in text and go directly underneath the table)
Note. Adapted from CANSIM Table 203-0001 - Survey of household spending (SHS),
household spending, summary-level categories, by province, territory and selected metropolitan areas, annual, by Statistics Canada, 2011, retrieved from
(If the table is copied exactly, use the term "reprinted". Use "adapted" if you have altered the table.)
Statistics Canada. (2011). Table 203-0001 - Survey of household spending (SHS),
household spending, summary-level categories, by province, territory and selected metropolitan areas, annual. Retrieved from
Economist Intelligence Unit - country profile
Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. (2008, March). Uzbekistan country report. Retrieved
Factiva - online newspaper
McGregor, G. (2009, October 26). Business graduates accept ethics with degrees;
University of Ottawa MBAs swear oath in Canadian first. The Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved from
Financial Post Databases - investor report
Bombardier Inc. Investor Report. (2011). Retrieved from
IBISWorld - industry report
Panteva, Nikoleta. (2011, August). Soybean farming in the US:11111. Retrieved from
Mergent Online annual report
PepsiCo. Inc. (2000). 2000 Annual Report. Retrieved from
Print Measurement Bureau - data
Print Measurement Bureau. (2011). Cell phones/smartphones/PDA brands
personally have. Retrieved from
Research Insight - industry survey
Milton, D. (2006, October 26). Restaurants. Standard & Poor's Industry Surveys. Retrieved
from Research Insight Version 8.4.1 [CD-ROM].

Do I Really Need to Cite?

Of course you do! Check out this PowerPoint presentation on Using and Citing Sources Effectively in APA created by the Business Library and the Haskayne School of Business & Effective Writing Centre (University of Calgary).

Other citation styles

Here are some great resources to check out for business sources in MLA and Chicago formats.